Sunday, March 15, 2020
buy custom Gingival Enlargement and Pregnancy essay 1.0 Introduction Gingival enlargement also known as gingival hypertrophy or hyperplasia is an abnormal overgrowth of gingival tissues6. Studies have revealed that pregnancy is among the risk factors causing periodontal disease, due to increased levels of progesterone and estrogens. Gingiva has been found to be one of the target organs for female sex hormones. In order to reduce incidences of gingival inflammation, it is recommended that pregnant women should maintain their oral hygiene. The increase in gingival inflammation begins during the second month of pregnancy and and reach its maximum level during the eighth month of pregnancy. The inflammatory changes may lead to gingival appearing edematous, hyperplastic or erythematous. Usually, the changes are either localized or generalized and may be noted on the interdental papilla and also on the marginal gingival. The condition is accompanied by local irritation. 2.0 Purpose of the Project In this paper, the relationship between gingival enlargement and pregnancy is presented. The paper will enable us discover the causes of gingival enlargement in pregnant women, the intense of the condition and how it can be prevented. Gingival enlargement has been found to cause various problems such as chewing, breathing, speaking and cosmetic problems, especially during pregnancy. Hormonal imbalances, which occur during pregnancy, have been associated with localized and generalized gingival enlargements. Pregnancy does not cause this condition directly, but rather metabolism during pregnancy accentuates the response to irritants, thus causing gingival inflammation. All these are discussed in depth in the paper. Having a deeper understanding of the relationship between gingival enlargement and pregnancy is crucial because the condition has become a common clinical entity. Because of its association with various local and systematic factors, complete management of the condition requires differential diagnosis. Most gingival enlargement causative factors lead to unusual hyperplastic tissue response, which are associated with local irritants such as calculus, plague, and bacteria. 3.0 Background Gingival enlargement is a common clinical entity, especially with pregnant women. Hormonal imbalances, which occur during pregnancy, have been known to be one of the causative factors of gingival enlargement. The paper addresses the relationship between gingival enlargement and pregnancy. The topic has a wide range of importance to health issues. Hormonal imbalances, which occur during puberty and pregnancy, have been known to be associated with various types of gingival enlargement. The hormonal changes significantly potentiate the effects of irritants on gingival connective tissues. In all body inflammation good oral hygiene is necessary in order to minimize the negative effects of the associated systematic factors. Gingivectomy or Gingivoplasty may be done in combination with oral hygiene and prophylaxis instructions. Lesions that do not cause a significant esthetic or functional problem should be avoided during pregnancy because they may reoccur. Furthermore, they may resolve to a spontaneous post-partum. The importance of oral prophylaxis and regular check up cannot be overlooked. Though, gingival hyperplasia is a rare condition, it is important for mechanic and cosmetic reasons. During pregnancy hyperplasia of gingival may be caused by various factors including poor oral hygiene, poor nutrition or by systematic hormonal stimulation. The objective of the paper is to explain deeply the causes of gingival enlargement during pregnancy, effects and prevention of the condition. The following research questions will be answered in the course of the paper: How is gingival enlargement related to pregnancy? What causes gingival enlargement during pregnancy? What are the influences of hormonal imbalances during pregnancy on the development of gingival lesions? How can gingival inflammation be prevented and treated? 4.0Literature Review Periodontal inflammation and pregnancy have now been linked for many years. For instance, in1978, Vermeeran discussed the intense of toothpains" in pregnancy5. Also in 1818, Pitcarin tried to give a description of gingival hyperplasia in pregnancy6. Pregnancy related abnormalities are most frequent in gingival tissue. Pregnancy does not cause gingivitis, but rather aggravate preexisting disease. The most common known changes exhibit themselves in gingival vasculature. Various studies have been done to understand how ovarian hormones may increase the enlargement the gingival tissues and exaggerate the response to local irritants. Gingival inflammation has been found to be aggravated by an imbalance or an increase in sex hormones. According to a study by Pitcarin sex hormones affects and modifies the actions of cells of immune system2. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the interaction of estrogen and immune system can lead to non immune regulatory effects. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have been demonstrated in the gingival. The sub-gingival micro-flora and the gingival tissues respond to the hormonal imbalance during pregnancy with a variety of changes. Epidemiological studies suggests that the prevalence of pregnancy gingivitis ranges from 35% to 100% During collection of information regarding the topic I made use of pub-med search. Using Google as the search engine I entered the URL. This is the National Library of medicine address. I clicked on PubMed, which took me to simple search interface pages for PubMed. The key words I searched for include the following; gingival enlargement, gingivectomy and periodontal inflammation including many others. 5.0 Theoretical Framework A study, which was done by Carranza and Newman1 on February 2008, involving 95 pregnant women aged between 15-45 years old, suggests that untreated periodontal diseases in pregnant mothers poses a significant risk factor, which may cause preterm, less than 37 weeks gestation and low birth weight (less than 2500 grams)1. Currently, there have been opinions that the co-relation of periodontal diseases to preterm low birth weights (PLBW) occurs due to infections. The evidence further suggests that the condition can be mediated indirectly through the translocation of bacterial products such as endotoxin or by the action of maternally produced inflammatory mediators. The biologically active molecules, which are normally in normal parturition, such as prostaglandin PGE and tumor necrosis factors are raised to high levels by the infection. This may foster premature labor. Recently, there has been a positive relation between gingival crevicular fluid levels of PGE with intra amniotic PGE levels, suggesting that negative periodontal infections may present a challenge sufficient to initiate the onset of premature labor through the stimulatiion of secondary mediators such as PGE and Interleukin 1 beta. Pregnancy gingivitis manifests itself in various ways. This includes; erythema, hyperplasia, edema and increased bleeding. These manifestations are similar to those of conventional gingivitis. The condition varies from mild to server inflammation and progresses to serious enlargement causing spontaneous bleeding and pain of gingiva. Occasionally, there might appear a localized gingival enlargement called pregnancy tumor. Serious gingival condition leads to tissue inflammation causing periodontal tooth mobility. It has been observed that during pregnancy hormonal levels increases to a greater extent. For instance, etcradial levels in the plasma increases up to 30 times that during reproductive cycle. Estrogen and progesterone are produced in the placenta during pregnancy. The estrogen produced may regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation and keratinization, while progesterone changes the rate of production of collagen and also affects the permeability of microvasculature. Receptors for progesterone and estrogen have been revealed in the gingival; providing direct biochemical evidence that gingiva can be a target organ for sex hormones. In addition, there exists an evidence of sex hormone concentration in the crevicular fluid, which provides a growth medium for periodontal pathogens. Also, there are various changes which occur in maternal immune system leading to a decrease in the ration of peripheral T helper cells to T suppressor cells. The changes in maternal immune response increase the degree of gingival inflammation. Because of increased sex hormones in gingival tissues, gingival crevicular fluid and in the saliva, the response of tissues (gingival) to local factors (plague) becomes exaggerated7. Gingival inflammation, presence of calculus and plague and consequently, gingival bleeding have been found to be more in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. It has been estimated that the prevalence of gingivitis in pregnant women ranges from 30% to 100%. According to another study did by Laine, pregnant women need to have a high standard of hygiene4. Because of the hormonal imbalances during pregnancy, pregnant women are more susceptible to gingival-periodontal diseases. This is consistent with the finding by Pinard, which showed that pregnant women need more oral hygiene instructions and care in order to deal with oral diseases3. Oral hygiene instructions such as instructions on how to care for oral heath during gestation, and after delivering, are among the parameters to be considered for pregnant women6. Although a considerable proportion of pregnant women experience gingivitis during pregnancy, gingival tissues return to their original healthy state after wards. This happens when the levels of estrogen and progesterone reach baseline values. In a clinical situation, apart from a slight increase in gingivitis, a sub-gingival microbial shift and bleeding, healthy pregnant women are unlikely to experience a significant gingival response that would have serious clinical implication. It is important for women, who are susceptible to gingival conditions, to seek treatment to prevent serious extension of inflammation that may cause bacteremia8. Preventive measures such as meticulous plague control and dental prophylaxis helps in preventing periodontal conditions from development. Hence, it is necessary to include periodontal examination as one of antenatal check up during pregnancy in order to ensure that both the mother and the child are healthy. Buy custom Gingival Enlargement and Pregnancy essay
Friday, February 28, 2020
Case Analysis Sweden The Evolution of Health Care information - Coursework Example The Spri study also wished to establish the implication of the new medical information system on the quality, cost of health service and the performance of medical practitioners. In addition, the study was carried out to establish the significance of the computerized information system in carrying out medical follow-ups. The user friendliness of the health care system to different end users was also a significant objective of the Spri study. Although the implementation of the computerized health records would be beneficial to the government and the citizens, its implementation is difficult. This is because integrating the complex health records of the entire population would be difficult. The Swedish public health system is, therefore not likely to achieve the proposed benefits or rate of implementing the new health record system (Marion, Charlotte, and Joan 74). The understanding of information technology concerning its status and its future is also a significant aspect of implementing recommendation of the Spri case study. Developments in information technology have taken different directions and, therefore it is impossible to predict its future implications adequately. This is because the current Spri studies have been conducted using the present IT knowledge that might be irrelevant in the future. The projections that can be derived from the case stud y will only be valid in the short term due to the rapid evolution of information technology. The governments and local authorities need implementing the recommendations of the case study in order to reap its benefits. Lack of global consideration of IT has also contributed to the lack of credibility of the study results. The health care system can be described as information rich. This is because the sector deals with large volume of data. Information or the important content from the large volume of data is the most significant. The implementation of IT in health care systems will enable the
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Enterprise and Entrepreneurial Management - Essay Example The process involves generation of multiple ideas in the minds of the respective entrepreneur. The person may screen and reach at a various different ideas with each one having its unique pros and cons. Such ideas are generally in a raw format without much technical analysis being done on them. Idea generation is extremely significant because idea is the stone that is polished at the various stages of a business plan. An idea arises mostly from the personal interests and perception of the entrepreneur. It is something that is related to the behavioural nature and professional mindset of the entrepreneur. For instance a medical professional might develop an idea for surgical equipment retailing, a good cook might think of opening a restaurant and the like. It is always better to work out on those areas which relates to the interest of entrepreneur. It is as good as a business firm diversifying into a related product line. If the entrepreneur is familiar with the idea, it would be conv enient for him/her to manage it. Therefore, the first question an aspiring entrepreneur should ask is what interests them the most and is there an opportunity lying in the market for the same. This thought can give rise to more specific ideas. Strategic Objectives: Strategic objectives or just business objectives refer to the actual purposes of the business for which the business actually exists. It is considered as the focal point of all the major activities of the business. The strategic objectives of a business are usually encompassed in the terms Vision and Mission. Vision is the future outlook of the business and Mission is the actual purpose as well as course of action to be taken to... The researcher states that in the case of a successful enterprise, a detailed and comprehensive Business Plan is the primary step which ensures the overall course of action of the business. In most cases, a business plan is created to explain and illustrate the vision you have for your business, and to persuade others to help you achieve that vision. Topfer states that starting a business without enough planning is like setting a journey without deciding on the destination. In most cases, small businesses simply ignore the process of business planning. There are various different reasons which actually become hurdle in the formulation of the Business Plan including time constraints, resource constraints and more importantly expertise constraints. But irrespective of the size of the business, it is always beneficial to have a clearly charted out plan. Business plans are required not only for planning the future of the business but also for the availing financing options. All financial institutions assist with the capital requirement of the company only after a careful study of the prospects of the business. Such an analysis is possible only with the help of a detailed and comprehensive business plan. This paper highlights the entrepreneurial characteristics. There are several literatures that discuss the qualities and skills required for becoming a successful entrepreneur. Most of such literatures discuss almost the same characteristics.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Understanding Performance Management Essay The mandate to operate at an optimal performance level and meet financial and organizational expectations are transforming the way organizations do business. This evolution is driving higher standards of competence in day-to-day operations and adding new pressure to increase stakeholder value. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s rapid-paced business climate, the agility with which a company manages performance can determine market position and company profitability. Defining Performance Management Performance management is the integrated process of defining, assessing, and reinforcing employee work behaviors and outcomes (Cummings and Worley 2005). Performance management focuses on understanding, optimizing, and aligning action and decisions and ensuring the collaboration and empowerment of all individuals across the business network. It includes practices and methods for goal setting, performance appraisal, coaching, employee development and reward systems. More than ever, organizations need broader measures of employee performance to ensure that (1) deficiencies are address in a timely manner through employee development programs that meet the needs of the organisation and its market, (2) employee behaviours are being directed toward performance of specific objectives that are consistent with the work unit and the organization strategy, and (3) employees are provided with proper and timely feed back to assist with their career development. These practices jointly influence the performance of individuals and work group, and enables them to work across strategic, tactical, and operational levels to align actions to ensure optimal performance. In order for effective performance management to take place, the process must utilize information from three time periods to do so. It makes use of data from the past in order to gather information form past performance. This information is then utilized in the present for the establishment of work plans, goals and the setting of development opportunities. These objectives therefore allow for high levels of performance in the future. The Purpose of the Performance Management System The main purpose of performance management is to make sure that employee goals, employee behaviours used to achieve these goals and feedback information about employee performance are all linked to the corporate strategy. However there is no one way to manage performance. What ever system is adopted needs to be congruent with the culture and principles that pervade the organization. Most systems of performance management has three purposes- Strategic, Administrative, and Developmental. The strategic purpose- Defining Performance One of the ways in which strategies are implemented is by management defining the desired results, behaviours and employee characteristics necessary for carrying out strategy. They can then develop measurement and feedback mechanisms which will show hoe effectively results are being achieved and what to do to produce results. The organization can achieve this strategic purpose if it is flexible and amendable to changes in the goals and strategies which can occur, and also to recognise that if such changes occur, then there needs to be change in results, behaviours and characteristics of the employees, which must of necessity change to correspond with such organizational changes. The Administrative Purpose-Measuring Performance Performance appraisal information is one of the main instruments used by organizations for making administrative decisions, for example, salary administration, in terms of pay raises; promotions, retention or termination, recognition of individual performance and identification of poor performance. The Developmental Purpose- Feedback and coaching This aspect of performance management seeks to develop further, employees who are good at their jobs. In instances where employees are not performing up to standard, performance management also seeks to improve their performance through coaching. The feedback from the performance evaluation process indicates or identifies the areas of strengths and weakness in the employee performance. It is therefore critical to businesses that they recognise and fulfill the purpose of an effective performance management system as this is central to gaining a competitive advantage through the management of human resources. They also need to develop the measures by which performance can be evaluated. The discussion now turns to the development of the performance management system. It describes the major strategic decisions that must be put in place if the task force is to effectively design a performance management system. In order for a successful performance management to be established, the process must utilize five strategic decisions. 1. How the system will be used be used? 2. Who does the evaluation? 3. What areas are to be evaluated? 4. How should the evaluation be done? 5. What are the ways in which the evaluation can be done? How will the system be used Planned employee development should be one of the basic concepts of any organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance management system. This is an attempt to state a broad policy which removes any option about people development by stipulating that developing people is a pillar of whatever system of management the organization espouses. This people development should be planned, not given mere lip service or expected to happen by itself. Adoption of this policy would guard against the simplistic way in which some supervisors consider themselves to be results oriented as opposed to people oriented, thus absolving themselves from people development. The major thrust of employee development will be to emphasize that the development of people as the best means available to achieve results for the organization. Three new thoughts are intended in this policy recÃ ¬ommendation. First, because development is different for everyone, there should be individual development plans. While there may always be areas of growth or development common to many at the same time, these ought not to be the sum total of the people developÃ ¬ing process taking place. It is often an easy excuse for supervisors point to plantÃ¢â¬âwide or companyÃ¢â¬âwide Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬ programs as a way of absolving themselves of their people developing responsibility. The second operable word in this policy stateÃ ¬ment is review. The supervisor is required to follow up on the people development plans. They are not to be spoken of enthusiastically for a brief period and then forgotten. If documented on company forms, they ought not to be forwarded to some staff office as though floatÃ ¬ing off into neverÃ¢â¬ânever land. They require monitoring so that progress can be checked periodically. Third, individual plans should be reviewed at least annually. This is an attempt to offer some time frame for periodic review, so as not to make the task too timeÃ¢â¬âconsuming. Furthermore, a lot can happen in twelve months, so that this time span is not too soon for considering new situations that might warrant changÃ ¬ing or updating the plan. Many practicing managers indicate a twelve month time frame as a practical one, especially when the development plan is discussed in the context of the annual performance evaluation. Each of my subordinates should work out a specific plan of personal development. Two thoughts are contained in this policy statement. First, each subordinate is to have a development plan. Again, we speak of the universality of developÃ ¬ment. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t only for the weak, or only for those identified as shinning stars, or only for any select lucky or unlucky few. Everyone has developmental needs in order to help achieve the mission of the organization. Second, there is the question of who works out this plan for development. Some may immediately think of some subordinates who do not appear capable of working out their own personal development, hence this may prompt a negative vote (or Ã¢â¬Å"falseÃ¢â¬ mark) on this stateÃ ¬ment. Clearly there will be some individuals less qualified than others to work out such a plan. But the intent is not to expect people to do it alone Ã¢â¬â quite the contrary. The real point of this statement is to fix on the subordinate a sharing of the development responsibility for which the supervisor is accountable. It becomes then a shared responsibility between the supervisor and the subordinate. I should require individual development plans from each of my subordinates Again many mangers can point to individuals who might state, or have stated, they are not interested in development. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all encountered people like that. They readily assert that they have no interest in getting promoted; they know their job, they do it well, they simply want to work 9 to 5 and leave the jockeying for positions to someone else. This is precisely why the uniÃ ¬versality of the need for development needs reinforcing. It ought not to be an option. The organization cannot afford to let people maintain that attitude. It is not what we want to people to think of promotion or becoming managers or anything they truly do not want to become, but in order to continue to perform well in the present areas of responsibility, people must keep pace with developÃ ¬ments in their field. Because no job stays the same, no jobholder can stay the same. Ã¢â¬Å"Future shockÃ¢â¬ is a concept with which we are all familiar. So much happens in the work developments around us that no job remains the same very long. Hence, if a worker is doing the job the same way he or she did a year ago, that person is less effective, if not completely wrong. Periodic onÃ¢â¬âtheÃ¢â¬âjob coaching is a major part of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s development. The hope here is that the supervisor will feel at home with the statement and its implications. Periodic instruction or assistance on the job is an everyday occurrence. No one will deny the need for giving instruction or assistance on the job to those who need it, and some need it more that others. If we can begin to see this part of the warp and weft of individual development, then the universal change envisioned in these statements will not be so threatening to some. Who evaluates Performance appraisal of the employee should be done by immediate supervisor. The supervisor is the one who is usually in the best position to observe and evaluate his or her subordinatesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and he or she is responsible for that personÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. References I/O psych text Another approach that can be used is peer appraisals. According to kane and Lawler(1978), three techniques are usually used : (1) Peer nomination- each person nomoinates a specified number of group members as being highest in particular dimension of performance. (2) Peer rating- each group member rates the others on a set of performance dimensions using several kinds of rating scales. 3) Peer ranking- each member ranks all others from the best to worst on one or more performance dimensions. The Appraisal of an employee by his or her peers can be effective in predicting future management success. One problem however is log rolling; that is all the peers simply get together to rate each other highly. Also many group members donot like to evaluate one another, so part of the method hinges on impressing participants with its values. There is also the rating committee which is usually composed of the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ immediate supervisors and three or four other supervisors. This type of rating is useful and advantageous because while there may be discrepancies in the rating s made by individual supervisors, the composite ratings tend to be more reliable, fair and valid. Another advantage is that several raters can cancel out problems like bias and the halo effect on the part of the individual rater. Employee evaluation can also be done by employees assessing their own behaviour. This is known as the self assessment technique. The basic problem with this is that employees usually rate themselves higher than they are rated by their supervisors or their peers. Meyer(1980) reorted a study in which engineers rated their own performance against their views of the performance of other engineers in the company. On average, each engineer thought he or she was performing better than 75% of the rest of the engineers in the study. Statically, it is quite a trick to have a 100% of the workforce be in the top 25%b of job performers. This underscores the biggest problem with self- assessment: positive leniency. Most people have higher opinions of their own performance than others do. There is also the other form of appraisal which is appraisal by subordinates, otherwise known as upward feedback. In this situation, subordinates are anonymously asked to evaluate their supervisorÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. When this type of appraisal is conducted throughout the firm it really helps the top managers to diagnose management styles, identify potential people problems and take corrective action with individual managers as required. Appraisal may also be conducted through performance feedback from all the persons with whom the employee has to interact; this interaction is referred to as 360-degrwee feedback. The appraisal can take place between coworkers, subordinates, and internal and external customers. The Performance Appraisal Interview and the Coaching Process The appraisal interview is one in which the supervisor and subordinate review the appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths. For many supervisors the formal performance appraisal interview is one of the most dreaded activities of the role. Of course, supervisors often have no problem evaluating the outstanding performer. The problem is with everyone else. They are put in the position of providing information to a subordinate that often runs contrary to the subordinates own self-evaluation or self-image. This can lead to a number of outcomes that many managers would prefer avoiding. In conducting appraisal interviews effectively there are four major things that supervisors must do in preparation for interview: 1. Spend a lot of time preparing; go over the subordinates performance, your own interactions, the history of the employee; if the employee reports to a number of supervisors, make sure you have input from all relevant sources 2. They must assemble data, study the personÃ¢â¬â¢s job description, compare the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance standards that would be evaluated against, and review the files of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s previous appraisals. 3. Supervisors should also prepare employees, that is , give them at least a week notice to review their work, read over job description, analyze problems and gather their questions and comments so that the interview can be a two-way conversation. 4. A mutually agreeable time should be choosen ofr the interview. Enough time time should also be scheduled for the intertview. Having prepared for the interview there are four important things that supervisors need to cognizant of: ? Supervisors should attempt to be direct and specific all times. They should speak in terms of objective work data such as absences, tardiness, qulit records, inspection reports, productivity records and cost reduction. This is done so that employee is aware of all the areas that he or she is being appraised on. ?The supervisor should also encourage the appraisee to talk. Stop and listen to what the person is saying. The supervisor should ask opened questions such as Ã¢â¬Å" what do you think we can do to improve the situation ? ? Do not get personal. Supervisors should try to compare employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance to given standards and not to othe performance of other people. This can help to avoid confrontation or misunderstanding between the appraiser and appraisee. This also ensures that the person know what they are doing wrong and what they are doing right. The supervisor s hould ensure the persons understands , and get agreement before he or she leaves on how things will be improved and by a give n date . An action plan shoud also be developed showing steps and expected results. Coaching: Some General Guidelines be as specific as possible take advantage of critical incidents-for example after a major project, sit down and reflect with your subordinate about lessons learned identify specific developmental agendas identify resources available to subordinates adapt your coaching style to the individual Link to compensation Many people may argue that a performance appraisal is little more than a tool for managers to use in wringing as much work as possible from individuals without adequately rewarding them. This perception is difficult to deny if you have ever been the victim of such exploitation. Indeed, it must be recognized that a dishonest and secretive performance appraisal system will only exacerbate poor employee relations. However, if employees believe that the system can assist them in furthering their own careers and economic prospects, performance appraisals can actually boost employee morale. Performance appraisals are particularly useful in facilitating equitable decisions about salary if the agency uses a merit pay system as the basis for salary progression. A merit pay system requires a method for translating judgments about work quality into appropriate salary actions. Pay increases of varying sizes must be rationally explained if a merit pay system is not to seem arbitrary. If an organization has an automatic pay system, with scheduled salary increases, performance appraisals will help identify (and justify the termination of) unsatisfactory employees who demoralize others, since they receive the same salary increases as good workers. Recent research (Bannister Balkin, 1990) has reported that appraisees seem to have greater acceptance of the appraisal process, and feel more satisfied with it, when the process is directly linked to rewards. Such findings are a serious challenge to those who feel that appraisal results and reward outcomes must be strictly isolated from each other. Methods for performance appraisal
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Greetings to you all. My name is Thomas Sutherland and, along with my wife Adelaide, was the first officer sent to Australia to commence the work of the Salvation Army by the General, William Booth. For me to give you all a true picture of my journey to Australia I need to go back to my youth. You see, I wasn?t always a true follower of our Lord Jesus Christ. Yes I went to Sunday school when I was a lad, but during my teen years I lost my way causing great concern to my parents. I began to behave in a wicked way and would become one of the best blasphemers going around. I became the leader of a gang of roughs having shown good leadership skills amongst the group. It wasn?t long before I moved from these wild ways to that of drinking at the public houses, became idle and loathsome. This is where I picked up the name of ?Drunken Tom?. I picked up work as a farrier and had several close shaves with horses that didn?t like me. I then decided to move from my home town of Brancaster, in the Norfolk County, to London. I had learned music during my younger days and I was able to put these skills to use as a strolling vagabond (or a busker as you would now call them). While in London I would often think about what my parents would think of me in my dishevelled state. This would lead me to become lonesome and I would delve deeper into my wicked ways as well as my drunkenness. I very rarely communicated with my parents as I was ashamed of what I had become and didn?t know how to stop it. One day while in the streets of Hackney, feeling lost and sorry for myself, I heard the pleasant sounds of singing. I had not heard such a cheerful and loving sounds since I stoped going to Sunday school. I followed the sound of the voices... ... at night, and God came very near as Mrs. Sutherland and myself spoke of His love. The devil raged and tried to upset us, but it proved an entire failure, so we got the victory through the blood. We are teaching a present salvation, and the captain, mate and sailors listen to us. Several of the passengers are very much interested in The Salvation Army. But above all, God is with us. We have some roughs on board, and they commence to play their games when we hold our meetings. But God says ?Go on!? and on we go. The journey would become a lot smoother as we headed into the southern summer and after 43 days of sea travel, on the 17th of February, we would finally reach our destination of Adelaide in South Australia. The temperature was well over 100 degrees when we arrived, but that wasn?t going to stop us from commencing the Lords work in this vast land.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
7 WONDERS OF THE WORLD AIM: Is to apprise the house about 7 Wonders of The World. SEQUENCE: * History * Seven Wonders of the Ancient World * New Seven Wonders of the World * Ongoing Seven wonders of the Nature * Recapitulation * Conclusion HISTORY: The origin of the idea of Seven Wonders of the World dates back to Herodotus (484 BC Ã¢â¬â 425 BC) and Callimachus (305 BC Ã¢â¬â 240 BC), who made lists which included 7 famous place of ancient world, and from there the Idea of 7 wonders started. Only the Great Pyramid of Giza is still standing of those ancient wonders.The other six were destroyed by earthquake, fire, or other causes. New Seven Wonders of the World is a project that attempts to revive the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World concept with a list of modern wonders. A popularity poll was being led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the Swiss-based, controlled by New7Wonders Foundation, with winners announced on July 7, 2007 in Lisbon, Portugal. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Great Pyramid of Giza: * The Great Pyramid of Giza Built 2560 BC. * TheÃ Great Pyramid of GizaÃ is the oldest and largest of the threeÃ pyramidsÃ in theÃ Giza.This is the only one of theÃ Seven Wonders of the Ancient WorldÃ that survives in the world. * Ã It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb forÃ Fourth dynastyÃ EgyptianÃ Pharaoh Khufu and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2540 BC. * The Great Pyramid was theÃ tallest man-made structureÃ in the world for over 3,800 years. * Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface. * The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complex setting of buildings that included twoÃ mortuary templesÃ in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile).Hanging Gardens of Babylon * TheÃ Hanging Gardens ofÃ Babylon are considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. They were built by the Chal deanÃ kingÃ Nebuchadnezzar IIÃ around 600 BC. * He is reported to have constructed the gardens to please his sick wife, who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homelandÃ Persia. * The lush Hanging Gardens are extensively documented byÃ GreekÃ historiansÃ such asÃ StraboÃ andÃ Diodorus Siculus. Through the ages, the location may have been confused with gardens that existed atÃ Nimrud. The gardens were destroyed by several earthquakes after the 2nd century BC. Statue of Zeus at Olympia * TheÃ Statue of Zeus at OlympiaÃ was made by the Greek sculptorÃ Phidias, circa 432 BC on the site where it was erected in theÃ Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece. *It was considered to be one of theÃ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. * For six hundred years after the death of the sculptor, people from all over the civilized world travelled to view it as it was thought to be a misfortune to die without seeing this work. The seated statue, some 12 meters (39 fe et) tall, occupied the whole width of the aisle of the temple built to house it. Ã¢â¬Å"It seems that ifÃ ZeusÃ were to stand up,Ã¢â¬ the geographerÃ StraboÃ noted early in the first century BC, Ã¢â¬Å"he would unroofed the temple. Ã¢â¬Å" Temple of Artemis * TheÃ Temple of ArtemisÃ also known less precisely asÃ Temple ofÃ Diana, was aÃ temple dedicated toÃ ArtemisÃ completed in its most famous phase around 550 BC atÃ EphesusÃ (in present-dayÃ Turkey). * Here were previous temples on its site, where evidence of a sanctuary dates as early as theÃ Bronze Age. The whole temple was made of marble except for the roof. The Temple of Artemis was located near the ancient city of Ephesus, about 50Ã km south from a modern port city ofÃ Turkey.Today the site lies on the edge of the modern town ofÃ Selcuk. * The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was destroyed on July 21, 356 BC in an act of arson committed byÃ Hero stratus. According to the story, his motivat ion was fame at any cost, thus the termÃ herostratic fame. * A man was found to plan the burning of the temple of Ephesian Diana so that through the destruction of this most beautiful building his name might be spread through the whole world. The temple was restored after Alexander's death, in 323 BC. * This reconstruction was itself destroyed during a warÃ in 262. * The Ephesians rebuilt the temple again. * In 401, the temple in its last version was finally destroyed by a mob led by St. John Chrysostom,Ã and the stones were used in construction of other buildingsMausoleum of Halicarnassus * TheÃ Mausoleum at Halicarnassus was aÃ tombÃ built between 353 and 350 BC in Turkey forÃ Mausolus, aÃ satrapÃ in theÃ Persian Empire, andÃ Artemisia II of Caria, his wife and sister. It stood approximately 45 meters (135 ft) in height, and each of the four sides was adorned withÃ sculpturalÃ reliefsÃ created by each one of four Greek sculptorsÃ . * The beauty of the Mausoleum was not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof: statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals in varying scales. The four Greek sculptors who carved the statues were each responsible for one side. * The Mausoleum overlooked the city of Halicarnassus for many years.It was untouched when the city fell to Alexander III of Macedon in 334 BC and still undamaged after attacks byÃ piratesÃ in 62 and 58 BC. It stood above the city's ruins for sixteen centuries. Then a series of earthquakes shattered the columns and sent the bronze chariot crashing to the ground. By 1404 AD only the very base of the Mausoleum was still recognizable. Lighthouse of Alexandria * TheÃ Lighthouse of AlexandriaÃ was a tower built in the 3rd century BC (between 285 and 247 BC) on theÃ islandÃ of Pharos inÃ Alexandria. With a height variously estimated at between 115 and 135Ã m (380 and 440Ã ft) it was identified as one of theÃ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. * The lighthouse was completed in the 3rd century BC. * Alexander died unexpectedly at age 32, Ptolemy Soter (Saviour, named so by the inhabitants of Rhodes) made himself king in 305 BC and ordered the construction of the Pharos shortly thereafter. The building was finished during the reign of his son. * The twoÃ earthquakesÃ in 1303 and 1323 damaged the lighthouse to the extent that the Arab travelerÃ Ibn BattutaÃ reported no longer being able to enter the ruin.Even the stubby remnant disappeared in 1480. Colossus of Rhodes * TheÃ Colossus of RhodesÃ was aÃ statueÃ of the Greek godÃ Helios, erected in the city ofÃ RhodesÃ on theÃ GreekÃ island ofÃ RhodesÃ byÃ Chares of LindrosÃ between 292 and 280 BC. It is considered one of theÃ Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Before its destruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stood over 30 meters (107Ã ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world. * The structure as being built withÃ ironÃ tie bars to which brass plates were fixed to form the skin.The interior of the structure, which stood on a 15-meter- (50-foot-) high whiteÃ marbleÃ pedestalÃ near the harbor entrance, The statue itself was over 30 meters (107 ft) tall. Much of the iron . * The statue stood for only 56 years until Rhodes was hit by theÃ 226 BC Rhodes earthquake, when significant damage was also done to large portions of the city, including the harbor and commercial buildings, which were destroyed. * The remains lay on the ground as described byÃ Strabo(Ã GreekÃ historian) for over 800 years, and even broken, they were so impressive that many traveled to see them. In 654, an Arab force captured Rhodes, the remains were sold to a Jewish merchant, The buyer had the statue broken down, and transported the bronze scrap on the backs of 900 camels to his home.There is compelling evidence, however, that al l traces of the Colossus had actually disappeared long before the Arab invasion. New Seven Wonders of the World Taj Mahal * TheÃ Taj MahalÃ is aÃ monumentÃ located inÃ Agra, India, built by MughalÃ EmperorÃ Shah JahanÃ in memory of his wife,Ã Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example ofÃ Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Persian,Ã Indian, andÃ IslamicÃ architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal became aÃ UNESCOÃ World Heritage Site. * In 1631, Shah Jahan, emperor during theÃ Mughal empire's period of greatest prosperity, was grief-stricken when his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, died during the birth of their fourteenth child. Construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632, one year after her death. The principal construction was completed in 1648. * BY the late 19th century, parts of the buildings had fallen badly into isrepair. During the time of theÃ Indian rebellion of 1857, It also damaged during British per iod, At the end of the 19th century,Ã Lord CurzonÃ ordered a massive restoration project, which was completed in 1908. Great Wall of China * TheÃ Great Wall of ChinaÃ is a series of stone and earthenÃ fortificationsÃ in northernÃ China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th century to protect the northern borders of theÃ Chinese EmpireÃ fromÃ attacks during variousÃ successive dynasties. Since the 5th century BC, several walls have been built that were referred to as the Great Wall.One of the most famous is the wall built between 220Ã¢â¬â206 BC by the firstÃ Emperor of China. * Great Wall, with all of its branches, stretches for 8,851. 8Ã km (5,500. 3Ã mi). This is made up of 6,259. 6Ã km (3,889. 5Ã mi) of sections of actual wall, 359. 7Ã km (223. 5Ã mi) of trenches and 2,232. 5Ã km (1,387. 2Ã mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. * At present some portions north of Beijing and near tou rist centers have been preserved and even extensively renovated, in many locations the Wall is in disrepair.Many Parts have been destroyed because the Wall is in the way of construction. More than 60Ã kilometers (37Ã mi) of the wall inÃ GansuÃ province may disappear in the next 20 years, due to erosion fromÃ sandstorms. In places, the height of the wall has been reduced from more than five meters (16. 4Ã ft) to less than two meters. The square lookout towers that characterize the most famous images of the wall have disappeared completely. Many western sections of the wall areÃ constructed from mud, rather than brick and stone, and thus become more harmful for the building.Roman Coliseum * Roman Coliseum in the center of the city ofÃ Rome,Ã Italy, the largest ever built in theÃ Roman Empire. It is one of the greatest works ofÃ Roman architecture. its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperorÃ VespasianÃ and was completed in 80 AD. * Constru ction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the EmperorÃ VespasianÃ in around 70Ã¢â¬â72AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Hills, By the 2nd century BC. * In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged y a major fire (caused by lightning) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240, again possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; and again constructed in 484 and 508. * Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake in 1349, also country caused sevear damage by the earthquake. * Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome. * But again at 19th centaury Roman rebuilt it. The Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions, receiving millions of visitors annually. * On July 7, 2007, the Colosseum was voted as one of New Open World Corporation'sÃ New Seven Wonders of the World. Petra * PetraÃ meaningÃ rock Its inÃ Jordan, lying on the slope ofÃ MountÃ in aÃ basinÃ among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Arabah , the large valley running from theÃ Dead SeaÃ to theÃ Gulf of Aqaba. * Petra is also one of theÃ New Seven Wonders of the World. The constructed it as their capital city around 100 BC. The site suffers from a host of threats, including collapse of ancient structures, erosion due to flooding and improper rainwater drainage, weathering from salt upwelling, improper restoration of ancient structures, and unsustainable tourism. The latter has increased substantially ever since the site was named one of theÃ New Seven Wonders of the WorldÃ in 2007 Machu Picchu * Machu PicchuÃ located 2,430Ã meters (8,000Ã ft) above sea level. It is situated on a mountain ridge above theÃ Urubamba ValleyÃ inÃ Peru, Often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"The Lost City of the IncasÃ¢â¬ , Machu Picchu is one of the most familiar symbols of theÃ Inca Empire. The Incas started building it around AD 1430. * Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historical Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCOÃ World Heritage SiteÃ in 1983. * Machu Picchu was built in the classical Inca style, with polishedÃ dry-stone walls. Its primary buildings are theÃ Intihuatana, theÃ Temple of the Sun, and theÃ Room of the Three Windows. These are located in what is known by archaeologists as theÃ Sacred DistrictÃ of Machu Picchu. * Machu Picchu was constructed around 1462, at the height of the Inca Empire.It is likely that most of its inhabitants were wiped out by smallpoxÃ before theÃ SpanishÃ conquistadoresÃ arrived in the area, and there is no record of the Spanish having known of the remote city. * An area of 325. 92 square kilometers surrounding Machu Picchu was declared a Ã¢â¬Å"Historical SanctuaryÃ¢â¬ of Peru in 1971. In addition to the ruins, this sanctuary area includes a large p ortion of adjoining region, rich withÃ floraÃ andÃ fauna. * Machu Picchu was designated as aÃ World Heritage SiteÃ in 1983 when it was described as Ã¢â¬Å"an absolute masterpiece of architecture and a unique testimony to the Inca civilizationÃ¢â¬ Christ the Redeemer Christ the RedeemerÃ is aÃ statueÃ ofÃ Jesus ChristÃ inÃ Rio de Janeiro,Ã Brazil; considered the largestÃ art deco (Art DecoÃ was a popular international art design movement from 1925 until the 1940s)Ã statue in the world. The statue stands 39. 6Ã meters (130Ã ft) tall, including its 9. 5 meter (31 ft) pedestal, and 30Ã meters (98Ã ft) wide. It weighs 635 tons (700Ã short tons), and is located at the peak of the 700Ã meters (2,300Ã ft)Ã CorcovadoÃ mountain. It is one of the tallest of its kind in the world. the statue has become an icon of Rio and Brazil. The idea for erecting a large statue atop Corcovado was first suggested in the mid 1850s, which financing fromÃ Pri ncess IsabelÃ to build a large religiousÃ monument. The second proposal for a largeÃ landmarkÃ statue on the mountain was made in 1921 by the Catholic Circle of Rio. The group organized an event calledÃ Semana do MonumentoÃ (Ã¢â¬Å"Monument WeekÃ¢â¬ ) to attract donations and collect signatures to support the building of the statue. The donations came mostly fromÃ Brazilian Catholics. Chichen Itza * Ã Chichen ItzaÃ is a largeÃ pre-ColumbianÃ archaeological siteÃ built by theÃ Maya civilizationÃ located in the northern center of the Mexico.Chichen Itza was a major regional focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from theÃ Late ClassicÃ through theÃ Terminal ClassicÃ and into the early portion of theÃ Early PostclassicÃ period. The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, from what is called Ã¢â¬Å"MexicanizedÃ¢â¬ * Chichen Itza is maintained by MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ Ã (National Institute of Anthropology and History, INAH). The l and under the monuments, however, is privately-owned by the Barbican family. * SomeÃ ethnohistoricÃ sources claim that in about 987 aÃ ToltecÃ king Ã arrived here with his army from central Mexico made Chichen Itza his capital.The art and architecture from this period shows an interesting mix of Maya and Toltec styles. * Chichen Itza was a major economic power in the northern Maya lowlands. * ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a largest tourist place in Mexico but Over the past several years, INAH, which manages the site, has been closing monuments to public access. While visitors can walk around them, they can no longer climb them or go inside their chambers. The most recent was El Castillo, which was closed after a San Diego, Calif. , woman fell to her death in 2006.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Colorado College is a private liberal arts college with an acceptance rate of 15%. Located in Colorado Springs and founded in 1874, Colorado College has a rich history of education. The school nearly always finds itself on the lists of top colleges in the United States, and the school has a chapter ofÃ Phi Beta Kappa. Academics at Colorado College are unusual because of the schools block plan. Students take a single class in each three-and-a-half week long semester. This allows faculty and students to devote all their attention and energy to a single subject at a time. Popular sports at Colorado College include basketball, lacrosse, track and field, swimming and diving, ice hockey, and volleyball. Considering applying to this highly selective school? Here are the Colorado College admissions statistics you should know. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Colorado College had an acceptance rate of 15%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 15 students were admitted, making Colorado Colleges admissions process highly competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 8,552 Percent Admitted 15% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 42% SAT Scores and Requirements Colorado College has a test-optional standardized testing policy. Applicants to Colorado College may submit SAT or ACT scores to the school, but they are not required.Ã During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 43% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 650 720 Math 650 750 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that of those students who submitted scores during the 2017-18 admissions cycle, most ofÃ Colorado Colleges admitted students fall within theÃ top 20% nationallyÃ on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Colorado College scored between 650 and 720, while 25% scored below 650 and 25% scored above 720. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 650 and 750, while 25% scored below 650 and 25% scored above 750. While the SAT is not required, this data tells us that a composite SAT score of 1470 or higher is competitive for Colorado College. Requirements Colorado College does not require SAT scores for admission. For students who choose to submit scores, note that Colorado College participates in the scorechoice program, meaning that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. Colorado College does not require the essay section of the SAT. ACT Scores and Requirements Colorado College has a test-optional standardized testing policy. Applicants to Colorado College may submit SAT or ACT scores to the school, but they are not required.Ã During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 52% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 30 35 Math 27 31 Composite 29 33 This admissions data tells us that of those who submitted scores during the 2017-18 admissions cycle, most of Colorado Colleges admitted students fall within theÃ top 9% nationallyÃ on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Colorado Colleges received a composite ACT score between 29 and 33, while 25% scored above 33 and 25% scored below 29. Requirements Note that Colorado College does not require ACT scores for admission. For students who choose to submit scores, Colorado College does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. Colorado College does not require the ACT writing section. GPA Colorado College does not provide data about admitted students high school GPAs. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Colorado College Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Colorado College. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting in with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Colorado College, which accepts 15% of applicants,Ã has highly selective admissions. However, Colorado College has aÃ holistic admissionsÃ process and is test-optional, and admissions decisions are based on much more than numbers. A strongÃ application essay, supplemental essays,Ã and glowingÃ letters of recommendationÃ can strengthen your application, as can participation in meaningfulÃ extracurricular activitiesÃ and aÃ rigorous course schedule. While not required, Colorado College offers optional interviews for interested applicants. In the scattergram above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. You can see that the majority of successful applicants had A averages, SAT scores of about 1300 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 27 or higher. The higher your grades, the better your chances of acceptance to Colorado College. If You Like Colorado College, You May Also Like These Schools Occidental CollegeBrown UniversityAmherst CollegeWesleyan UniversityStanford University All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Colorado College Undergraduate Admissions Office.